CPT 22513, 22514, 22515- Percuaneous Vertebral augmentation

Coding

In 2015, the CPT codes combined the kyphoplasty procedure with all of the necessary imaging guidance; they are listed in the table below.

Code Description CPT

22513 Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including cavity creation (fracture reduction and bone biopsy included when performed) using mechanical device (eg, kyphoplasty), 1 vertebral body, unilateral or bilateral cannulation, inclusive of all imaging guidance; thoracic

22514 Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including cavity creation (fracture reduction and bone biopsy included when performed) using mechanical device (eg, kyphoplasty), 1 vertebral body, unilateral or bilateral cannulation, inclusive of all imaging guidance; lumbar

22515 Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including cavity creation (fracture reduction and bone biopsy included when performed) using mechanical device (eg, kyphoplasty), 1 vertebral body, unilateral or bilateral cannulation, inclusive of all imaging guidance; each additional thoracic or lumbar vertebral body


Introduction
Kyphoplasty is a type of surgery that stabilizes a vertebra (a bone of the spine) after a compression fracture. A compression fracture usually happens at the front side of the vertebra. The front collapses, leaving a vertebra that looks a bit like a wedge. The goal of kyphoplasty is to reduce pain and return the vertebra to its normal height. A hollow needle or similar instrument is inserted through the skin and into the damaged area of the bone. Either a balloon is inflated or a device is uncoiled to create a hollow space at the front of the bone, bringing it back to its normal height. If a balloon is used, it’s then removed. If a coil device is used, it remains. A type of bone cement is then injected into the hollow space. The cement hardens after a few minutes. This policy describes when this procedure may be considered medically necessary.

Note: The Introduction section is for your general knowledge and is not to be taken as policy coverage criteria. The rest of the policy uses specific words and concepts familiar to medical professionals. It is intended for providers. A provider can be a person, such as a doctor, nurse, psychologist, or dentist. A provider also can be a place where medical care is given, like a hospital, clinic, or lab. This policy informs them about when a service may be covered.

Service Medical Necessity Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty and Kiva®

Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty and Kiva® may be considered medically necessary for the treatment of symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that have failed to respond to at least 6 weeks of conservative treatment (eg, analgesics, physical therapy, rest).

Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty and Kiva® may be considered medically necessary for the treatment of severe pain due to osteolytic lesions of the spine related to multiple myeloma or metastatic malignancies.

Service Investigational Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty and Kiva®

Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty and Kiva® are considered investigational for all other indications, including use in acute vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis or trauma. Percutaneous radiofrequency kyphoplasty or percutaneous mechanical vertebral augmentation using any other device is considered investigational.


Note: Based on currently available evidence, health outcomes for kyphoplasty, Kiva®, and

vertebroplasty appear to be equivalent, therefore, the “least costly alternative” provision of the medically necessary definition may apply.

Documentation Requirements

The patient’s medical records submitted for review for all conditions should document that medical necessity criteria are met. The record should include the following:

* Relevant history and physical supporting painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that have failed to respond to at least 6 weeks of conservative treatment (eg, analgesics, physical therapy, rest) OR

* Severe pain due to osteolytic lesions of the spine related to multiple myeloma or metastatic malignancies


Description

Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty, radiofrequency kyphoplasty, and mechanical vertebral augmentation with Kiva are interventional techniques involving the fluoroscopically guided injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into a cavity created in the vertebral body with a balloon or mechanical device. These techniques have been investigated as options to provide mechanical support and symptomatic relief in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture or in those with osteolytic lesions of the spine (eg, due to multiple myeloma or metastatic malignancies).

Background

Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture


Osteoporotic compression fractures are common. It is estimated that up to 50% of women and 25% of men will have a vertebral fracture at some point in their lives. However, only about onethird of vertebral fractures actually reach clinical diagnosis, and most symptomatic fractures will heal within a few weeks or 1 month. A minority of patients will exhibit chronic pain following an osteoporotic compression fracture that present challenges for medical management.

Treatment

Chronic symptoms do not tend to respond to the management strategies for acute pain such as bedrest, immobilization or bracing device, and analgesic medication, sometimes including narcotic analgesics. The source of chronic pain after vertebral compression fracture may not be from the vertebra itself but may be predominantly related to strain on muscles and ligaments  secondary to kyphosis. This type of pain frequently is not improved with analgesics and may be better addressed through exercise.

Osteolytic Vertebral Body Fractures

Vertebral body fractures can also be pathologic, due to osteolytic lesions, most commonly from metastatic tumors. Metastatic malignant disease involving the spine generally involves the vertebral bodies, with pain being the most frequent complaint


Treatment

While radiotherapy and chemotherapy are frequently effective in reducing tumor burden and associated symptoms, pain relief may be delayed for days to weeks, depending on tumor response. Further, these approaches rely on bone remodeling to regain vertebral body strength, which may necessitate supportive bracing to minimize the risk of vertebral body collapse during healing.

Kyphoplasty

Balloon kyphoplasty is a variant of vertebroplasty and uses a specialized bone tamp with an inflatable balloon to expand a collapsed vertebral body as close as possible to its natural height before injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Radiofrequency kyphoplasty (also known as radiofrequency targeted vertebral augmentation) is a modification of balloon kyphoplasty. In this procedure, a small-diameter articulating osteotome creates paths across the vertebra. An ultra-high viscosity cement is injected into the fractured vertebral body and radiofrequency is used to achieve the desired consistency of the cement. The ultra-high viscosity cement is designed to restore height and alignment to the fractured vertebra, along with stabilizing the fracture.

It has been proposed that kyphoplasty may provide an analgesic effect through mechanical stabilization of a fractured or otherwise weakened vertebral body. However, other possible mechanisms of effect have been postulated, one of which is thermal damage to intraosseous nerve fibers, given that PMMA undergoes a heat-releasing (exothermic) reaction during its hardening process.

Vertebral Augmentation

Kiva® is another mechanical vertebral augmentation technique that uses an implant for structural support of the vertebral body to provide a reservoir for bone cement. The Kiva® VCF Treatment System consists of a shaped memory coil and an implant, which is filled with bone cement. The coil is inserted into the vertebral body over a removable guide wire. The coil reconfigures itself into a stack of loops within the vertebral body and can be customized by changing the number of loops of the coil. The implant, made from PEEK-OPTIMA® (a biocompatible polymer) is deployed over the coil. The coil is then retracted and PMMA is injected through the lumen of the implant. The PMMA cement flows through small slots in the center of the implant, which fixes the implant to the vertebral body and contains the PMMA in a cylindrical column. The proposed advantage of the Kiva system is a reduction in cement leakage.

Outcome Measures

For treatment of osteoporosis and malignancy with percutaneous kyphoplasty, the primary beneficial outcomes of interest are relief of pain and improvement in the ability to function. Kyphoplasty may also restore lost vertebral body height and reduce kyphotic deformity. Potential health outcomes related to kyphotic deformity include pulmonary or gastrointestinal compression and associated symptoms, and vertebral compression fractures may be associated with lower health-related quality of life.

Summary of Evidence


For individuals who have osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures who receive balloon kyphoplasty or mechanical vertebral augmentation (Kiva), the evidence includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Relevant outcomes include symptoms, functional outcomes, quality of life, hospitalizations, and treatment-related morbidity. A meta-analysis and moderately sized unblinded RCT have compared kyphoplasty with conservative care and found short-term benefits in pain and other outcomes. Other RCTs, summarized in a meta-analysis, have reported similar outcomes for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. Two randomized trials that compared mechanical vertebral augmentation (Kiva) with kyphoplasty have reported similar outcomes for both procedures. A major limitation of all these RCTs is the lack of a sham procedure. Due to the possible sham effect observed in the recent trials of vertebroplasty, the validity of the results from non-sham-controlled trials is unclear. Therefore, whether these improvements represent a true treatment effect is uncertain. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

For individuals who have osteolytic vertebral compression fractures who receive balloon kyphoplasty or mechanical vertebral augmentation (Kiva), the evidence includes RCTs, case series, and a systematic review of these studies. Relevant outcomes include symptoms, functional outcomes, quality of life, hospitalizations, and treatment-related morbidity. Two RCTs compared balloon kyphoplasty with conservative management and another has compared Kiva with balloon kyphoplasty. Results of these trials, along with case series, would suggest a reduction in pain, disability, and analgesic use in patients with cancer-related compression fractures. However, because the results of the comparative studies of vertebroplasty have suggested possible placebo or natural history effects, the evidence these studies provide is insufficient to warrant conclusions about the effect of kyphoplasty on health outcomes. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes. For individuals who have osteoporotic or osteolytic vertebral compression fractures who receive radiofrequency kyphoplasty, the evidence includes a systematic review and an RCT. Relevant outcomes include symptoms, functional outcomes, quality of life, hospitalizations, and treatment-related morbidity. The only RCT (N=80) identified showed similar results between radiofrequency kyphoplasty and balloon kyphoplasty. The systematic review suggested that radiofrequency kyphoplasty is superior to balloon kyphoplasty in pain relief, but the review itself was limited by the inclusion of a small number of studies as well as possible bias. Corroboration of these results in a larger number of patients is needed to determine with greater certainty whether radiofrequency kyphoplasty provides outcomes similar to balloon kyphoplasty. The evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of the technology on health outcomes.

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